How to cite sources using MLA, APA and Turabian citations

cite sources

Citations are always required when it comes to writing graduate school papers. And as they are easy to input, citations should be written properly. Doing so does not only reflect responsibility over small details on your part but also seriousness over graduate school requirements. Below are the basics you must know about writing MLA, APA, and Turabian citation styles.

When do you use which?

Professors or instructors in graduate schools have their own preferences of what citations students should use. Usually, professors state their preferences at the start of classes. But if they fail to do so, ask them before using the citation appropriate to your field of study.

Without your professors’ instructors, use the MLA citation for humanities, arts, history and literature papers. Use the APA citation, on the other hand, for social sciences, education and psychology papers. Finally, the Turabian citation is used by for all subjects.

What is the format of MLA, APA, and Turabian citations?

Below are ways to cite common sources. But for more detailed information, visit scholarly websites.

Books

MLA – Author 1 Last name, First name and Author 2 First name Last name. Underlined book bitle. Place of publication: Name of publishing house, Year of publication.

APA – Author 1 Last name, First name Initial., & Author 2 Last name, First name Initial. (Year of publication). Italicized book title. Place of publication (city/state): Name of publishing house.

Turabian – Author 1 Last name, First name, and Author 2 First name Last name. Year of publication. Italicized book title. Place of publication: Name of publishing house.

Internet sources and magazine articles

MLA – Author Last name, First name. “Article title.” Underlined title of book. Year of publication. Place of publication. Day of access month. Year <web address>.

APA – Author Last name, First name initial. (Year of publication). Italicized title of article. Retrieved month day, year, from Title of book Website: web address

Turabian – Author Last name, First name. Year of publication. Italicized title. Place of publication: Name of publishing house. On-line. Available from Internet, web address, accessed day month year.

Encyclopedia

MLA – Author Last name, First name. “Topic.” Underlined name of encyclopedia. Ed. Name of editor. Number of volumes. Place of publication: Name of publishing house, Year of publication.

APA – Author Last name, First name Initial. (Year of publication). Topic. In italicized name of encyclopedia (Vol. Number, pp. Pages). Place of publication: Name of publishing house.

Turabian – cited in the text and placed in parentheses (Author Name, “Topic,” in Name of Encyclopedia, Year of publication ed.)

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